| INTRODUCTION: RADIO ON THE NET
|1. [lecture] INTRODUCTION : RADIO ON THE NET|
|* how radio started on the net
- emerging of RealAudio (and other real time streaming) on-line audio
- live streaming and audio archives / some of first net.radio projects
- net.radio and its interactive potential /using IRC chats, Web-cams,
etc, 'do it yourself radio', co-broadcasting experiments, etc./
|* what radio is in the age of digital media
- radio theory: historical parallels between radio and internet
In the context of a paper written by Berthold Brecht in 1936 about the
development of radio - a critique on the underexploitation of its interactive
potential and the banal commercial exploitation of it - the historical
parallels between radio and internet are apparent.
"Radio on the internet didn't start with the emersion of Real Audio. To make a good judgement of what radio is in the age of digital media, the traditional concept of radio has to be overthrown completely" (Josephine Bosma, 1997, ZKP4). http://www.ljudmila.org/nettime/zkp4/24.htm
- media theory: importance of understanding the architecture of media (war technologies, hackers, alternative media, net criticism)
- alternative media experience: pirate radio, mini-fm, radio art, radio and net.audio experiments
"In the meantime, an interesting thing happened: I stumbled upon Article
4 in the Radio Regulations Book. It permits transmitting without a license
if the power is very weak and is intended to accommodate wireless microphones
and remote-control toys, for example. Under this regulation, quite a few
wireless transmitters were sold in toy stores and electronic markets".
|[net.art] '5 min before lunch'
screening of most interesting net.art projects:
Janis Garancs /Riga-Stockholm/ GIRLFRIEND
|3. [workshop] DIGITISING AND ENCODING THE SOUNDS
To record the sounds into computer, means - you have to digitise them.
As there might be limited space in your hard disk or you create sounds for internet - you should choose the quality for digitising and it of course depends on your needs and sound material.
Especially for the internet the aim usally is to get better quality with the smallest file size.
In the process of digitising the sound your computer samples the wave
capturing many snapshots per one second.
Basically there are 3 main sampling rates for audio: 44,1 kHz - 22,050 kHz and 11,025 kHz. Also you can choose to have one channel or two (mono or stereo).
Another parameter you can change is resolution. Generaly there are two
main resolutions 8-bit or 16-bit per sample.
*.WAV AND *.AIF - DIGITAL FORMATS AND FILE SIZES PER MINUTE
It depends of use and the sound material - what to choose.
For example, if you are digitising sounds for real audio - there is almost no difference between 44,1 kHz and 22,050 kHz, as real audio encoder compresses the files in very rough way.
11,025 kHz - is more for voice and speech, but it also might be acceptable for music, if the range of the sound is rather flat.
It means - digitising the sounds for the web - main thing is to decide which frequency and resolution to choose - that would allow you to make the smallest file sizes still with good quality.
(some data are taken from the book "Audio on the Web - The Official
IUMA Guide", be Jeff Patterson, Ryan Melcher, published by Peachpit Press.