[01] INTRODUCTION: RADIO ON THE NET
 
1. [lecture]:
a. how radio started on the net
b. historical paralles between radio and internet
2. [net.art]: ('5 min before lunch') Janis Garancs "The Girlfriend"
3. [workshop]: encoding and digitsing the sounds

 
1. [lecture] INTRODUCTION : RADIO ON THE NET
* how radio started on the net

- emerging of RealAudio (and other real time streaming) on-line audio softwares.
Real Audio home http://www.real.com

- live streaming and audio archives / some of first net.radio projects 1995-1997
B92 (Belgrade) http://www.helpb92.net
Kunstradio (Vienna) http://thing.at/orfkunstradio
Radio Lada97 (Rimini) http://www.giardini.sm./lada97
RIS (Berlin) http://www.icf.de/RIS
Convex_tv (Berlin) http://www.art-bag.net/convextv/
OZOne (Riga) http://home.parks.lv/e-lab/ozone
Pararadio (Budapest) http://www.c3.hu/para

- net.radio and its interactive potential /using IRC chats, Web-cams, etc, 'do it yourself radio', co-broadcasting experiments, etc./ 
some examples:
http://orang.re-lab.net (chat, live stream scheduler, random)
http://www.irational.org/radio (live scheduler, net=>FM)
http://thing.at/orfkunstradio (on-air, on-line, on-site)
 
 

* what radio is in the age of digital media
- radio theory: historical parallels between radio and internet

In the context of a paper written by Berthold Brecht in 1936 about the development of radio - a critique on the underexploitation of its interactive potential and the banal commercial exploitation of it - the historical parallels between radio and internet are apparent.
"It was suddenly possible to say everything to everybody, but thinking about it, there was nothing to say" (1936, Berthold Brecht)

http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/ami/hypcolla/cortazar.htm
"The broadcasting system must be changed from a distribution system into a communication apparatus. The broadcasting system would be the most wonderful communication apparatus imaginable in public life, a fantastic channel system, that is, if it understood not only to transmit but also to receive, in other words, to make the listener not only hear but also speak, and not to isolate him but to involve him in a relationship. 
(...) 
Impossible to realize in this society, possible in another, these suggestions, which are the natural consequence of technological development, serve to propagate and form this other order." 
(Brecht, Bertold: Radiotheorie. Gesammelte Werke Band 8, p. 129 and 134)

"Radio on the internet didn't start with the emersion of Real Audio. To make a good judgement of what radio is in the age of digital  media, the traditional concept of radio has to be overthrown completely" (Josephine Bosma, 1997, ZKP4). http://www.ljudmila.org/nettime/zkp4/24.htm

- media theory: importance of understanding the architecture of media (war technologies, hackers, alternative media, net criticism)

related links/text archives:
http://www.desk.nl/~nettime (net.crticism)
http://thing.desk.nl/bilwet (media theory and critic)

- alternative media experience: pirate radio, mini-fm, radio art, radio and net.audio experiments

"In the meantime, an interesting thing happened: I stumbled upon Article 4 in the Radio Regulations Book. It permits transmitting without a license if the power is very weak and is intended to accommodate wireless microphones and remote-control toys, for example. Under this regulation, quite a few wireless transmitters were sold in toy stores and electronic markets". 
[...]
"The satellite presents possibilities for polymedia but it does not create it. Polymedia must be based on self-controlled tools, otherwise, advanced technologies like satellites will remain as tools for the manipulation of power." (Tetsuo Kogawa, "Toward Polymorphous Radio") http://anarchy.k2.tku.ac.jp/anarchy98/radio/micro/radiorethink.html
 


[net.art] '5 min before lunch' 
screening of most interesting net.art projects:
 

Janis Garancs /Riga-Stockholm/ GIRLFRIEND 
http://jg.x-i.net/girlfriend
 


3. [workshop] DIGITISING AND ENCODING THE SOUNDS
To record the sounds into computer, means - you have to digitise them. 
As there might be limited space in your hard disk or you create sounds for internet - you should choose the quality for digitising and it of course depends on your needs and sound material.

Especially for the internet the aim usally is to get better quality with the smallest file size.

In the process of digitising the sound your computer samples the wave capturing many snapshots per one second.
As more samples are in 1 sec, as better quality you can get.
E.g. the best is CD quality - 44.1 kHz, or 48.1 kHz which means that it has 44.100 samples in 1 second.
(It is similarly with video - in 1 sec = 25 frames, just there are much more units in audio).

Basically there are 3 main sampling rates for audio: 44,1 kHz - 22,050 kHz and 11,025 kHz. Also you can choose to have one channel or two (mono or stereo).

Another parameter you can change is resolution. Generaly there are two main resolutions 8-bit or 16-bit per sample.
 

*.WAV AND *.AIF - DIGITAL FORMATS AND FILE SIZES PER MINUTE
 

44,1 kHz
22,050 kHz
11,025 kHz
16 bit stereo
10,01 Mb
5,05 Mb
2,52 Mb
16 bit mono
5,05 Mb
2,52 Mb
1,26 Mb
8 bit stereo
5,05 Mb
2,52 Mb
1,26 Mb
8 bit mono
2,52 Mb
1,26 Mb
630 Kb
To make smaller file size and still keeping good quality, first you have to choose - stereo or mono, then resolution: 8 (sound will be more noisy) or 16 bits (sound will be more clear), and then quality (wider range or its enough with more flatten sound).

It depends of use and the sound material - what to choose.

For example, if you are digitising sounds for real audio - there is almost no difference between 44,1 kHz and 22,050 kHz, as real audio encoder compresses the files in very rough way.

11,025 kHz - is more for voice and speech, but it also might be acceptable for music, if the range of the sound is rather flat.

It means - digitising the sounds for the web - main thing is to decide which frequency and resolution to choose - that would allow you to make the smallest file sizes still with good quality.

(some data are taken from the book "Audio on the Web - The Official IUMA Guide", be Jeff Patterson, Ryan Melcher, published by Peachpit Press.
http://www.peachpit.com)