NET.RADIO WORKSHOP at Pro Arte
St.Petersburg, June 8-10, 2000



[02] HOW AND WHAT TO BROADCAST ON THE NET - AUDIO ARCHIVES
1. how and what to broadcast on the net
2. archives
3. ozone-data can be placed everywhere
4. orang.org - on-line publisher
5. dbonananzh - open mp3 archive
6. more net.radio archives


1. HOW AND WHAT TO BROADCAST (STREAM, TRANSMIT...) ON THE NET

In 1997-98, when different web-casting technologies were developing - many discussions about alternative net.radio development were going on. Almost everyone agreed that the most important quality of net.radio is it's huge variety in terms of both - content and models, and even in definations. 

Today 1999 - when the software industries are developing towards multinational corporations and gigantic content providers - net.radio (like net itself) is suffering from a commercialisation and a lack of variety. From the one hand. 
But from the other hand - it still is open for developing and establishing in any way you like, it just should be again reconstructed and deconstructed, or combined with other media's or physical spaces.

Borut Savski (from Ministry Experiment and Radio Student in Ljubljana) in 1997 'about HOWS and WHATS to transmit via internet' proposed:

'Let's compare it to what the conventional radio technologies don't (!!!) offer... and use web casting in every way possible, especially in the ways that surpass the ways of conventional radio! And even implement conventional (local?) media with web (international) principles.' 
http://xchange.re-lab.net/a/msg00032.html

Following this outline, he wrote 10 principles (advanteges and new opportunities) of what Web technology offers:
1. (live) real time text, audio & video transmitting (everything synchronized or in parallel)
2. world-wide accessibility & international concepts
3. synchronized broadcasting from multiple sources on same platform (site)
4. atomized (international) production groups, gathering to their own liking
5. very differentiated (again international) audiences
6. creation of no-copyright platforms of independent production
7. information banks (texts, interviews, music, archived live production)!!!
8. individualized ways of access to archived text, sound & vision files (for the audience)
9. no cost difference between local and international
10. no repressive legislation (so far)

on the end of his text he invites:
'So let's not build criterias for web media on the basis of what we are used to. It's time to rethink the media criterias (hopefully changing it), not to simply conform it to conventional stereotypes!' 

May be today we even could speak already about net.radio or new media stereotypes, which definatly already exists on the net (for example - if you want to be a very 'normal' net caster, 'professional' net.radio station you should offer 4 parallel live streams to choose for the listener - real5.0, G2, mp3, quicktime4...). 
But even those stereotypes are very realative and they are not defined either (yet). 
And if to make a brief overview of some basic fields in the net.radio, like - Audio Archives, Live Streaming and Net Audio Experiments - still each of the examples, each of the below mentioned net.radio stations will have different models with their own specific features.



2. AUDIO ARCHIVES -
is the advantage of the net.radio (at least compering with traditional radio).

Audio archives mostly are used for publishing on-line - recorded live sessions (both - net. or on-air radio) - music tracks - alternative audio production - sound and radio art - etc.
The net.radio (following different definitions) might content only archived audio files.

"Indeed sound archives give radio a historical depth it never had before. 
Apart from this soundfiles on the internet can be used and selected by 
anyone to serve whatever purpose sound in the net and outside can be used 
for. Links on homepages being its most common use. If your provider does not 
have a RealAudio server, you can find other places to put up your sound for 
free, and link to it. You could also use the sound for further 
experimentation, like how Radio Lada put up soundbites to be used during the 
live net.cast last February from V2 in Rotterdam, which was produced by a 
very interesting group of radio and internet workers from former-Yugoslavia, 
Austria, The Netherlands and Germany. One thing that came forward here was 
the previously impossible idea to network several smaller, maybe even 
illegal local stations, all over the globe." /Josephine Bosma/

Another privilige of streaming audio also is its non-defined phisical locations - you can stream to or place your files on remote servers, even not having your own. 



3. OZONE 97 - DATA CAN BE PLACED EVERYWHERE
with this idea in 1997 we started the project - riga net.radio OZONE

It was an attempt to establish net.radio without having its own servers - E-LAB/Riga aimed to use only existing sources - anywhere on this world where it was possible to 
get access. The idea was to create real network radio - where the data can be placed everywhere - web-site was in Riga on ISP Parks web-server, real audio files on RIS/Berlin and Xs4all/Amsterdam real audio servers. 
The content was mostly alternative Latvian experimental music created during various experimental events - live jam sessions at e-lab and other places, recorded and uploaded to the real audio servers in Amsterdam or Berlin. 
http://ozone.re-lab.net/1997/

When we had an opening party in March 1997, after an article in the main latvian newspaper Diena, we got the phonecall from the official body of the Latvian National Tv and radio board. After longer discussion, we realised, that the Electronic Media Laws in Latvia, made in 1992 for ALL electronic media (including tv, radio, and 'all others') and it means that it refers also to the internet now. And if we have more then 25 listeners, we should apply for the license or our net.radio is illigal. And even if all data are not placed in riga, but in amsterdam and berlin - if our phisical bodies are located in riga - the radio ozone is illegal.

Starting November 1997, when E-LAB installed its own real audio server, radio OZOne is broadcasting weekly live on the net.



4. ORANG.ORG - REAL AUDIO CONTENT ON-LINE PUBLISHER

Josephine Bosma:
' A radio station that calls itself a radio but denies being one, is Radio Internationale Stadt. This project of Internationale Stadt in Berlin offers the possibility to ftp soundfiles from anywhere onto their RealAudio server. It does not want to call itself a radio station however because: "Itís not a matter of radio, its a matter of internet community. We donít run a radio station. What the users in the internet bring us, we can  broadcast. We provide the infrastructure to bring audio information to the net. It is not up to us to make audio content, it is up to the users, people that are interested into doing this. We are able to support them", says Thomas Kaulman, sysop and initiator of the project.' 

RIS/Radio Internationale Stadt/Berlin still is one of the biggest real audio archives created by artist and programmer Thomax Kaulmann, beginning of 1997. The main idea was to build up the interface for an open on-line audio data base where the content is created by contributors - sound artists, musicians, djs, independent radio makers.
http://www.icf.de/RIS

RIS since 1998 is developing towards the ORANG - Open Radio Audio Network Group.

Radio International City is an art and cultural project and has been startet in 1996. It offers a dynamical platform for the presentation of audio content for independant artists and other creative people in the cultural environment. 
In December 1998 the project ORANG has been launched. ORANG stands for the color, the malay word for "human being" and last, but not least for "Open Radio Archive Network Group". 

ORANG is the distributed version of RIS, which means, that audio content can now be published on different servers. But the access to the entire pool of audio materials on all ORANG systems is assured. Each publishing on one of the associated systems leads to an automated update of the databases of all other systems, within seconds. Right now, besides RIS, there are ORANG systems installed at Re-Lab in Riga, Latvia  http://orang.re-lab.net/  and Backspace.org, London, UK  http://bak.spc.org/ORANG/

If you want to upload your audio-files (your music, sound art) to ORANG, you should contact thomax@icf.de to gecontributors login and password. 



5. DBONANZAH - OPEN mp3 ARCHIVE

As an alternative to Real Audio usally has been mentioned MP3 format - with the complimants regarding it's quality. MP3 also can stream, but more often MP3 format is used for archiving music files, and it does it in very intelligent way (as Herbert A. Meyer has said) and MP3 sound quality is not far from the CD.

The project DBONANZAH, initiated by Gy Van Belle <guy.vanbelle@rug.ac.be> and Sandra Fauconnier <sandra.fauconnier@rug.ac.be> from Belgium, is one of the largest mp3 archives for sound art and experimental audio.
http://simsim.rug.ac.be/dbonanzah/mp3/

The prject started when Sola_P., who is Dbonanzah's South American contact person, 'calculated that on (650 MB) can contain 11 hours of mp3-compressed music'. The founders of the Dbonanzah installed the FTP server with lots of disk space, and startd to give the accounts to all interested sound artists. As the result - there are 2 collections of the widest variety of experimental audio: one is complete -  11h of mp3 !, another one is ongoing still.
All these tracks are available for free, you can download them and listen. 

(If you don't know how to listen mp3 tracks - go to http://winamp.com to download free player)

Why mp3?  - DBONANZHA's initiators argue:
'Cause this relatively new compression format allows artists to publicise and sell their own music online, without the greedy hands of the record industry trying to 'steal' exorbitant amounts of money from both the artists and customers. Sure, we're naive and idealistic about this, but hey, it's fun! Try to get a grip on the discussions on http://mp3.com and you'll know what we mean.'

If you are interested about the to be informed about this mp3 project, new submissions, new interfaces or mp3 news - the projecy also has a mailinglist you can subscribe to:
http://www.egroups.com/group/mp3_11h_650mb/


6. MORE NET.RADIO ARHIVES



# NET only

NET RADIO OZONE (Riga)
http://ozone.re-lab.net
[i] live every Tuesday night at 20:00 CET - archives of recorded live sessions, Latvian alternative and DJs music, ambient sounds and reports from events, sound-art, recordings from concerts and parties.

RADIO TNC 
http://radiotnc.aec.at/
[i] TNC Network's Webstation - journeys into digital culture, audio archive of live on-line projects



# parallel: ON-AIR = ON-LINE

CONVEX TV (Berlin)
http://www.art-bag.net/convextv/
[i] archives of texts and regular live transmissions - convex_tv broadcasting every first sunday of each month - on air in berlin 87,9 khz and on-line (real audio stream).

KUNSTRADIO
http://thing.at/orfkunstradio
[i] archives of various audio projects, sound installations, texts and biographies of various sound artists, recorded live sessions (Kunstradio is broadcasting weekly live on-air in ORF1, Vienna).



# ON-AIR => ON-LINE

WORKSPACE RADIO (Kassel)
http://141.51.92.16/interfiction/WorkSpace_Radio/
[i] real-audio archive created from the recordings of live on-air transmissions at Freies Radio Kassel, (Hybrid Workspace at Documenta X, summer 1997)



# MUSIC AND DJ'S RADIO STATIONS

TECHNOLOGIX (Toronto)
http://www.technologix.org/
[i] techno haus djs net.radio station - archive of weekly live net-casting sessions (live every Sunday at 10:00 pm EST) 

BEATBOX (Vienna)
http://thing.at/beatbox/sound.html
[i] archive of DJs mixes and music (techno-haus-drum'n bass) from parties and live events



# PLAY-LISTs

INTERFUNK (G) kulturmagazine
http://141.51.92.13/sonic/interfunk/
play list Ė> to choose r/a or mpg3

VPRO / 3voor12 (NL)
http://www.vpro.nl/data/3voor12/layout/index.shtml
DANCE TRACKs (you can select tracks to listen)



# ARCHIVES AND LINK'S LISTS

SONIC - http://exp.psychologie.uni-kassel.de/sonic/
audio archives (r/a and mpg3), texts, info and radio links,
created by Herbert A. Meyer

MINISTRY OF EXPERIMENTS (Ljubljana) 
http://www.radiostudent.si/mzx/
[i] archives of different real audio experiments, projects and texts
(about How and what to broadcast via the net, XLR, etc.), created by Borut Savski



# ON-LINE PUBLISHER

ORANG SYSTEM - real audio servers' network (Berlin-Riga-London) 
http://orang.orang.org
http://orang.re-lab.net
http://bak.spc.org/ORANG
[i] Orang System is RealAudio server's network that provides the opportunity for audio content providers to publish audiofiles on-line via specially integrated web-environment, created by Thomax Kaulmann



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