INTRODUCTION: HOW RADIO STARTED ON THE NET
1. context: net & real audio
2. radio history & theory
3. towards polymorphus radio
4. pre-history of net.radio
5. minor media / network communities
1. context: NET & REAL AUDIO
Today (2000) when we go to the Internet we find it already different, as it was 4-5 years ago, when it was just emerging, web-technologies were developing and media artists and net activists were building up the cyber-environment...
the net.radio on its very early stage (1995-96) - when nobody called it
'net.radio' yet - looked slightly different.
during the last years (1998-99) the development of the e-commerce and e-business
has very much changed the situation on the net.
the first Real Audio Player versions only played back the content you've
clicked on, Real Player G2 already is offering the channels to listen -
mostly the same you can get on satellite or cable tv (cnn.com news and
sport, forecasts, etc.).
Free players, encoders and servers you can find at http://real.com/help, or http://www.realnetworks.com, while http://real.com offers only to buy them or even better to listen commercial music on-line or acceess real networks net.radio stations.
for Broadcasters even doesn't offer free server...
Real Server Basic 6.0 at http://proforma.real.com/rn/servers/basic/free60.html
Still - even if it seems that multi-corporations are taking over the net, that free space what net activists in the 1990ties were fighting for - (organising campaignes like 'access for all', 'we need bandwidth', 'developing of the information society through the individual self-expression', etc.) - is there.
To be able to develop the free and open space for art and creative self-expression, we should be aware of the potential of new media and what web-technologies can offer.
"To make a good judgement of what radio is in the age of digital media, the traditional concept of radio has to be overthrown completely", Josephine Bosma wrote in 1997 (at ZKP4 publication).
we can say - If we want to find a place for creative self-expression on
the net, to see internet development towards the open spaces, and to explore
the acoustic dimensions of the net - but to be able to do this - we should
change our notion about the web and net.radio as we see them today browsing.
Let's take a brief look into the pre-history of net.radio, radio theory and acoustic.cyberspace concept.
RADIO HISTORY & THEORY
1936 Berthold Brecht - in the context of a paper about the development
of radio - was writing a critique on the underexploitation of its interactive
potential and the banal commercial exploitation of it - the historical
parallels between radio and internet are apparent...
broadcasting system must be changed from a distribution system into a communication
apparatus. The broadcasting system would be the most wonderful communication
apparatus imaginable in public life, a fantastic channel system, that is,
if it understood not only to transmit but also to receive, in other words,
to make the listener not only hear but also speak, and not to isolate him
but to involve him in a relationship.
TOWARDS POLYMORPHOUS RADIO
"Throughout its history, despite efforts by the Futurists in the 1920s, radio has been considered largely a means of communication rather than an art form. Therefore, it is ironic that just as traditional forms of radio are in decline, its possibilities as an art form are reaching extreme potentials." /T. Kogawa/
[e.g.]::::::: From Tetsuo Kogawa text: -> in 80ties, about the mini-fm movement in japan ::::::::
question in the age of satellite media is no longer whether television
or radio is "free" or not but whether it is "polymorphous" or not. (...)
PRE-HISTORY OF NET.RADIO
--->with the reference to Josephine Bosma's text "Net.radio: Waves in the Web", ZKP4/1997 http://www.ljudmila.org/nettime/zkp4/24.htm <---
"Radio on the internet didn't start with the emersion of Real Audio. It was there long before." /J.Bosma/
"To understand the possibilities or maybe even the future of radio on the internet one has to look at experiments with communication tools done in the arts, specifically music and performance art." /J.Bosma/
RADIO ART: Josephine Bosma :-> on radio art (..-97)
like other media, should be combined, deconstructed and reconstructed.
MINOR MEDIA / NETWORKS AND COMMUNITIES
another of most recent experimental attempts is creating a platform for collaborative broadcasts and providing the context for content - Xchange project - international net.audio and radio mailinglist and network, initiated in late 1997 by e-lab, riga.
is a distributed group, a connective, that builds creative cooperation
in live-audio streaming on the communication channels that connect them.
" Now, Internet "radio" isn't radio; it does not exploit the spectrum, and that is a big difference. But it is hardly immune to the same kinds of domination at the hands of similar forces. It's incredibly important to maintain electronic communications media as a space of openness, of indetermination, of the affects of the unknown. What made early radio so exciting, in terms of the technical, the social, and the imaginative, was its openness: it was a space that wasn't entirely defined, wasn't totally mapped. More than that, I think, it was an acoustic space, which opened up a different logic. And that's happening again: the acoustic dimension of electronic media, and particularly of the Internet, offers an opportunity that is very different than simply providing more information, or making more web sites, or more entrancing animations. Or even making cheap phone calls." Erik Davis
About some abstract ideas and some open-ended notions about acoustic space Erik Davis talked in his lecture "Acosutic.Cyberspace" in 97 in riga, where he particularly was focusing on the exploring relationship between electronic sound and environments.
In his text Erik Davis is inviting us even to go further, beyond the experimenting with technologies only, towards the opening :
seen some interesting experiments and opportunities with the use of RealAudio
on the Internet, for example. But, more than that, I'm interested in getting
people to think about the larger implications of sound and acoustics. Not
as simply a vehicle for communicating information or establishing dialog
between far-flung actors; and not simply as electronic music, a genre of
activity and expression that, however fascinating, is commodified and compartmentalized
from our "other" activities and experiences.
As the conclusion of this, I would like to say, that even the internet environment is changing so quickly and often it seems that some doors are closed again, this is the space which is most open so far, and we should find again and again out the way to the open spaces.
"...As our machines become more complex, our relationships with them will become more complex, and whole new domains and dimensions will keep opening up -- and closing down as well. By pushing the boundaries of electro-acoustic environments, of acoustic cyberspace, we can maintain a line into the open spaces of the unknown.." /Erik Davis/